Microsoft has posted an update to a white paper that lists recommended exclusions that should be setup in your antivirus software on Windows Server and Windows Client system installations.
This is not a new document as Microsoft has apparently been curating this since about May of 2013. It is maintained and updated by Brian Helmick a Premier Field Engineer for Microsoft.
The 163KB Word document is extremely comprehensive:
The information in this document is for the purpose of setting proper file, directory, and process exclusions on Windows servers and clients. In addition to generic exclusions which should be put in place across all servers and clients, role- and application-specific exclusions are addressed as well. Specific files and processes are noted whenever possible however, in their absence, it is implied to exclude the full directory path given. The information in this document been gathered from numerous published sources, many of which are cited and can be accessed via the links included in the attached Appendix. This guide is intended to be used as a baseline for establishing exclusion policies, however, it is always recommended to follow up with specific product documentation and guidance in the event any recommendations have been changed or added.
Download Windows Antivirus Exclusion Recommendations (Servers, Clients, and Role-Specific)